Caliban and other essays by roberto fernndez retamar

Nature has made a race of workers, the Chinese race, with its marvelous manual dexterity and almost no sense of honor; govern them with justice, levying from them, in return for the blessing of such a government, an ample allowance for the conquering race, and they will be satisfied; a race of tillers of the soil, the black—a race of masters and soldiers, the European race… Let each do that which he is made for, and all will be well.

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The regeneration of the inferior or bastard races by the superior races is within the providential human order. Less apparent and in some cases perhaps less cruel is the process by which other capitalist countries have also achieved relative racial and cultural homogeneity at the expense of internal diversity.

We aspire [he says] not only to equality but to domination. Before being employed by Prospero, Caliban had no language: Pour forth this all-consuming activity onto countries which, like China, are crying aloud for foreign conquest ….

But the name carib in itself—as well as in its deformation, cannibal—has been perpetuated in the eyes of Europeans above all as a defamation. The first of these comes from Ernest Renan, who published his drama Caliban: More important than this is the knowledge that Caliban is our Carib.

These are the linguas francas capable of going beyond the frontiers that neither the aboriginal nor Creole languages succeed in crossing. To assume our condition as Caliban implies rethinking our history from the other side, from the viewpoint of the other protagonist.

And on another occasion: Twenty years after Renan had published his Caliban—in other words, in —the United States intervened in the Cuban war of independence against Spain and subjected Cuba to its tutelage, converting her in into her first neocolony and holding her untilwhile Puerto Rico and the Philippines became colonies of a traditional nature.

Prospero is the enlightened despot who loves the Renaissance; Miranda, his progeny; Caliban, the suffering masses [Ponce will then quote Renan, but not Guehenno]; and Ariel, the genius of the air without any ties to life.

Nevertheless, Prospero, as we well know, taught his language to Caliban and, consequently, gave him a name.

Documents of 20th-century Latin American and Latino Art

Right now as we are discussing, as I am discussing with those colonizers, how else can I do it except in one of their languages, which is now also our language, and with so many of their conceptual tools, which are now also our conceptual tools?

As for the vision of the cannibal, it corresponds—also in more contemporary terms—to the right wing of that same bourgeoisie.

Caliban And Other Essays

The question seemed to me to reveal one of the roots of the polemic and, hence, could also be expressed another way: In these countries mestizaje naturally exists to a greater or lesser degree, but it is always accidental and always on the fringe of the central line of development.

The Carib, on the other hand, will become acannibal—an anthropophagus, a bestial man situated on the margins of civilization, who must be opposed to the very death. But it would never occur to him to confuse a Chinese with a Norwegian, or a Bantu with an Italian; nor would it occur to him to ask whether they exist.

Caliban and Other Essays

What has happened is simply that in depicting Caliban, Shakespeare, an implacable realist, here takes the other option of the emerging bourgeois world. Unfortunately, such men were exceptions. This is something that we, the mestizo inhabitants of these same isles where Caliban lived, see with particular clarity: It is a question of the typically degraded vision offered by the colonizer of the man he is colonizing, That we ourselves may have at one time believed in this version only proves to what extent we are infected with the ideology of the enemy.

Since Giron they have begun to change their thinking. That the Caribs were as Columbus and, after him, an unending throng of followers depicted them is about as probably as the existence of one-eyed men, men with dog muzzles or tails, or even the Amazons mentioned by the explorer in pages where Greco-Roman mythology, the medieval bestiary, and the novel of chivalry all play their part.

While other colonials or ex-colonials in metropolitan centers speak among themselves in their own language, we Latin Americans continue to use the languages of our colonizers. The independentistas, white and black, adopted with honor something that colonialism meant as an insult.

This, naturally, is Fidel Castro on the tenth anniversary of the victory at Playa Giron. Needless to say, this line of action is still more alive than the earlier one. Not only was Floro a personal friend of Shakespeare, but the copy of the translation that Shakespeare owned and annotated is still extant.

Prospero invaded the islands, killed our ancestors, enslaved Caliban, and taught him his language to make himself understood. Both visions of the American aborigine will circulate vertiginously throughout Europe, each coming to know its own particular development: Because of its exceptional importance to us, it will be useful to trace its history in some detail.

Books by Roberto Fernández Retamar

It has included countries with well-defined millennial cultures, some of which have suffered or are presently suffering direct occupation India, Vietnamand others of which have suffered indirect occupation China.Caliban And Other Essays (1st Edition) by Roberto Fernandez Retamar Roberto Fernandez | PB | Acceptable - Caliban And Other Essays by Retamar, Roberto Fernandez Millions of satisfied customers and climbing.

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Caliban and Other Essays by Roberto Fernandez Retamar (1989, Paperback)

Shop with confidence on eBay! Calibán: Roberto Fernández Retamar’s American Intelligence On the forty-fifth anniversary of the publication of Cuban writer Roberto Fernández Retamar’s his argument into the long-running debate about Latin American identity but then relocates the central figure of Caliban to the Caribbean, where other writers such as Aimé.

Caliban and other essays by roberto fernndez retamar
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